The multi-cultural makeup of APTS makes for a rich and enlightening community experience that is like a family away from home.
APTS seeks to foster a learning environment wherein faculty and students comprise a community of scholars dedicated to the pursuit of truth within the Evangelical and Pentecostal/Charismatic traditions. Many activities bring faculty and students together for fellowship, discussion, spiritual enrichment, and ministry. APTS is dedicated to providing both rigorous academic programs and an atmosphere conducive to the spiritual and ministry development of every member of its community.
Learning doesn’t stop in the classroom. Our residential campus is a place where faith and learning intersect in worship, study, work, and play. Students pray together, enjoy meals together, and minister to each other and to the community.
Our students bring an array of perspectives on theology, faith, and Christian life. They reflect many denominations, ethnic backgrounds and cultures. Living and learning in this diverse community, prepares students for Christian leadership in theologically and culturally diverse environments.
Recreation is a big part of APTS. Both students and faculty alike participate in various sports to divert from all the hectic study week. From basketball, soccer, table tennis, badminton, racketball to volleyball, the campus has facilities to satisfy the preferences of our students.
Looking for a laid back atmosphere? The student lounge, also known as the Coffee Bar is the hangout place for students. A place that doesn’t only provide snacks & refreshments but also a cozy ambiance for short breaks from classes, study, and recreation.
Our focus on foundation matters is seen not just in our formal curriculum but through rigorous practice and hands-on ministry experience.
APTS encourages students to experience a deeper and more dynamic spiritual development as part of their seminary life. Regular chapel services, a Spiritual Emphasis Week, Selah Nights, small group sessions, and local church involvement forms an essential part of this process.
The Chapel Service is an integral part of theAPTS community and probably the most effective measure of one’s spiritual life on campus. It provides a balance between the Pentecostal identity against the academic and scholarly identity of campus life.
The Seminary community—students, faculty, and staff—gather in Husrt Chapel three times a week, from 11:20am to 12:30pm on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thrusdays. The faculty and students take turns on preaching the word. We welcome you to join the APTS chapel services anytime youare around in the Baguio area.
On Fridays, the community gathers in different small groups hosted by various members of the faculty. These informal gatherings are designed to be times of fellowship, fun, prayer, and sharing of cultural views and personal testimonies. In other words, it’s pretty much the best & long-awaited time of the week for students. Faculty members host these gatherings to nurture interpersonal relationships and build community spirit among students & the faculty.
The multi-cultural makeup of APTS makes for a rich and enlightening community experience that is like a family away from home.
APTS has a variety of housing accommodations to choose from. Spacious dormitory rooms are the usual choice of single students, though some prefer an apartment for more privacy. Married students have choices ranging from studio apartments to two-and three-bedroom units, some with stunning views of the Cordillera Mountain range. Family size usually dictates apartment preference but, if units are available, any student may rent one. (See financial information.)
For every school year, the student body members elect officers to serve on the Student Council. The Council meets periodically with the Dean of Students to discuss issues related to spiritual life, student welfare, student projects, and recreational and social activities.
The Student Council exists to promote:
1). A spiritual atmosphere for the development of spiritual life.
2). A social atmosphere for the encouragement of school spirit, loyalty, and fellowship among the students, and for helping to plan school social functions which relate to student affairs.
3). An academic interaction for the provision of a channel for the interchange of academic ideas.
4). An open, and healthy dialogue with the administration by providing a communication channel.
This years theme “Arise and Shine all Nations for His Glory”, was a collaboration of vision and team inspiration. This theme seems to be fitting in the times we are now in. We need to stand firm in the midst of all that is happening and be a beacon of light for the world. We need to ‘Arise and Shine’, leading people to Christ.
We, as the student council team, would not have made it this far had it not been for the support of the entire student body, families, faculty, missionaries, and the APTS staff. Your faith and support has been instrumental to what has been a year of challenges, that have shaped and molded us.
Thank you and God Bless.
-The Student Council
Working through series of events for every school year, The Chalice team covers and documents every single event and compiles them to a yearbook magazine.
Working together as one team for the glory of God was an experience that we, as a team, will never forget. Together, we were able to learn and grow on the media forum.
This year’s theme of Arise and Shine All Nations for Gods Glory’ was a theme for each member of the Chalice team. We were a team from different nations, but working towards one goal.
From the Editor in Chief, we would like to extend a huge thank you and blessings to all the students,staff and faculties for their tireless support, special mentions are dedicated to the many sponsors and supporters who donated money towards the new Chalice camera.
– The Chalice Team
APTS is dedicated to providing both rigorous academic programs and an atmosphere conducive to the spiritual and ministry development of every member of its community.
As part of our dedication in molding leaders out of our students. The school prepares a series of spiritual enriching events and fun-filled activities throughout the year. By balancing both academic and extracurricular events, students get to feed their mind and have the needed rest from their schedules.
New Students Welcome Night
An event that occurs at the beginning of every trimester is the “New Students Welcome Night”. An event faculties, missionaries as well as the APTS community look forward to. The event is celebrated over a hearty dinner followed by an introduction, games, and a prayer toward the new students. The objective of the event is to bond with the new students and have them feel the warmth of being a part of a large family.
Spiritual Emphasis Week
Spiritual Emphasis week takes place during the first trimester of the school year. Students and guest are encouraged to gather together for a spirit filled journey of refreshment and of spiritual renewal. The event features a 3 day revival lecture from guest speakers from all over the world.
Missions Convention Week
Missions Convention is one of the highlights of the second semester as it culminates with International Night. Special speakers are invited to provide a current perspective on missions to serve as a reminder of the pressing urgency of living out the Great Commission. The event lasts for a whole week with speakers coming from all over the world.
Missions Conventions week is not completed without the International Night, which sees the end of the Missions Convention week. The International Night signifies the official closing of a week filled of spiritual awakening, encouragement and renewed focus. As the curtain closes, the APTS community and visitors feast and celebrate with entertaining performances, great company, and cuisines from all over the world.
The William Menzies Annual Lectureship is an important academic event in the school year, normally taking place in January. Noted scholars present lectures on a variety of current topics in theology, biblical studies, missions, and ministry.
Annual School Outing
One of many traditions at APTS is the All School Outing held every third trimester.
Students, families, missionaries, and faculty get to experience fun and games outside of APTS. This year was no exception. The APTS Community packed up for the day’s events, which also welcomed new students that enrolled in the third trimester.
Traditionally known as Agape Night, Layla Ahev is the Hebrew translation of a Night of Love. This night is celebrated around Valentines day every year.
The APTS community gathered for an evening of reminiscing of Gods love for each other. A panel of specialists in the field of Love shared their life and personal stories as well as answer questions from students and from those present.
APTS endeavors to encourage its family to strengthen its spiritual life through a variety of
spiritual activities. Students are encouraged to participate fully.
The student policies contained in the student handbook is not exhaustive and from time to time there may be additional rules/policies or modification of existing policies. Failure to comply with the rules and guidelines may result in the loss of privileges and may in some cases, lead to disciplinary action, and expulsion from APTS. The administration and faculty reserve the right to interpret policies in keeping with the best interests of the APTS community.
- All doors in Bethesda Bldg. will be secured at 11:00 p.m. except east wing door.
- All equipment should be handled with care and appreciation.
- Recreational equipment is handled through the Dean of Students’ office. Any damage or destruction of equipment through misuse will be billed to the student's account.
- Scriptures clearly teach modesty and temperance in all things, and that the student should be sensitive to those around him/her. Therefore, the students’ personal appearance and dress should be appropriate at all times. All students must be properly and modestly dressed when going out of their rooms, particularly in the administrative offices, chapel, library, classrooms, and dining hall. Please refrain from wearing immodest clothes and beach slippers in these places. Shorts are appropriate when exercising.
- Use of the racquetball and basketball court is restricted to the hours between 7:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. only.
- In order to conserve energy, lights, electric fans, and radios should be turned off in any room when not in use, especially if you are the last to leave the room. In addition, ensure that the windows and doors are closed.
- Playing of musical instruments is only allowed after class/office hours until 8:00 pm unless the Dean of Students has approved an evening service or activity. At all times students must refrain from disturbing students who are studying in their rooms or designated areas.
- Students are not allowed to remove or transfer any equipment or furniture in any room without permission from the Business Administrator or Dean of Students.
- A canteen is available at the Coffee bar at ARC, 2nd floor. Students are asked not to expect service outside the specified times of operation.
- Borrowing items belonging to others without the owner's permission is prohibited.
- There should be no noisy gatherings that would disturb those living nearby before 7:00 a.m. and after 11:00 p.m.
- The TV at the ARC, 2nd floor is for students' use and is considered to be a privilege and not a right. This means it can and will be removed should its use become a hindrance to spiritual growth on campus. It will be the responsibility of the students to see that only proper programs are viewed. The decision as to what is "proper" rests finally with the faculty. Parents are responsible to keep their children from watching programs unacceptable to the APTS community. Volume should be kept down so as not to disturb guests, faculty, prayer groups, etc.
- No pets are allowed in any of the dorm rooms or apartments.
- If a student wants to engage in off-campus activities, which are not APTS school functions that are in conflict with APTS schedule, the Dean of Students must approve it before the student makes a commitment.
- Single ladies are not permitted to enter men’s dorm rooms or single men’s apartments unless a third person is present in the room. Single men are not permitted to enter ladies’ dorm rooms or single ladies apartments unless a third person is present in the room. The term “single” means unmarried singles as well as married individuals residing on campus without spouse or children.
- Students are not allowed to be off campus after 11:15 pm on week nights (Sunday through Thursday) and 12:00 p.m. on weekends (Friday and Saturday) without permission from the Dean of Students.
- No drinking or smoking is allowed no matter where you are.
- Campus resident students leaving campus overnight or more must inform the Dean of Students by completing a form “Travel Information Overnight or more” (see page 26). This includes Christmas and summer break. The form is available at the Dean Students office or from the Dean of Students’ Administrative Assistant. This is very important for emergency and security purposes.
Honesty among all of the APTS family is considered to be a high priority in all relationships. It is expected that all students conduct themselves within the guidelines of the Christian biblical community. This means that should any problem develop between individuals in the APTS family, that problem should be handled on an individual basis between the two individuals or maybe counseling with the Dean of Students rather than spreading the "news" to others.
Students are expected to be honest in writing and speaking. Plagiarism (taking credit for the written work or unique ideas of another person) or dishonesty of any kind is a serious violation of Christian standards and will result in automatic failure of a paper or, in serious cases, the course. Repeated instances may result in dismissal from APTS. Assistance from others must be limited to grammatical and stylistic improvements. Writing for someone else is also considered dishonest and will be dealt with accordingly. Detection a second time result in automatic failure of the course.
Academic dishonesty detected a third time will result in automatic failure of the course and an automatic suspension from the school for a minimum period of one school term and a record will be filed in the Academic Dean’s office. The student will also be referred to the Academic Affairs Committee for the discussion of further disciplinary action, which could involve a longer suspension or even expulsion, with no opportunity to return, depending on the seriousness of the offense.
Since English is the medium of instruction and students must function in this language in pursuing studies at APTS, and since APTS is an international seminary with students from many countries, APTS recognizes the vital importance of using English on the APTS campus. Faculty and staff are expected to lead the way by example and to correct others who violate this policy.
Except in the situation where no other ethnic groups are present, students must use English as the language of communication. This applies not only in the classrooms, but also in the library, dining hall, dorm rooms and offices when more than one ethnic group is present.
All announcements to be put on bulletin boards must be neat and have prior approval from the Dean of Students. Announcements to be made in chapel should be emailed or given to the DOS administrative assistant and/or the Dean of Students by the deadline the Dean of Students sets.
Marriage was instituted and blessed by God (Gen. 1-2). It is Sacred and Holy (Eph. 5:21-33). Even in the most favorable circumstances it requires adjustments. The pressures of student life, adapting to a new culture and isolation from family and friends further impact marriage development. It is also a fact that the maturity and health of a minister's marriage and family will greatly influence his effectiveness in ministry. Therefore, students are encouraged to plan their seminary program in ways to minimize difficulties and stress for their marriages and families. Further, since there are considerable resources (classes, workshops, seminars, and counseling) at the seminary, married students or those anticipating marriage are encouraged to take full advantage of them during their APTS stay.
The seminary recognizes courtship to be an important time in preparation for marriage. Students are expected to conduct themselves in accordance with biblical principles. As Christians, we must also be sensitive to the culture in which we reside. Behavior, judged inappropriate by the Student Life Committee or administration, will be dealt with accordingly.
- CROSS-CULTURAL COURTSHIP
Asia Pacific Theological Seminary receives students and supports from various countries in the Asia Pacific region and elsewhere. When students become romantically involved with those from another country, the training that has been invested in them may not benefit either country. Indeed, in some countries a cross-cultural relationship that leads to marriage minimizes the potential effectiveness of the couple in either of their home cultures. With this in mind, APTS cautions single students to consider carefully the potential effect of a cross-cultural relationship upon their future ministry. Some students are endorsed and/or financed by a sponsoring agency with the expectation that they will return to their country to serve in the ministry. As part of the application and acceptance process for such students, APTS encourages sponsors to specifically communicate their expectations concerning any obligations of the student to return to the country for ministry and their view of the impact that a cross-cultural relationship might have in this regard. APTS expects students as servants of God and ministers of the gospel to honor these expectations and commitments.
Where any actions of a student, as reported by any member of the APTS community, seem to be contrary to the stated expectations of his/her sponsor, the student will be asked to consult with the Dean of Students to clarify the matter. The administration reserves the right to notify the sponsor of any actions of the student that appear to be contrary to the stated expectation. In such cases, APTS will abide by the decisions of the sponsor regarding the continued enrollment of the student at APTS.
- BEHAVIOR OF SINGLES WHO ARE DATING:
Singles who are dating must, at all times, conduct themselves in a manner that will not embarrass APTS or others who are in their presence. All public displays of affection such as kissing, hugging, or holding hands are considered unacceptable for singles.
Unmarried students who are involved in a romantic relationship are not permitted to travel together outside of the Baguio area or on any overnight trip except when accompanied by at least two other students (who are not themselves involved in a romantic relationship) and with the permission of the Dean of Students. This also applies to term break and summer periods for students who have not completed their studies at APTS.
APTS recognizes the sanctity of marriage as established by the Scriptures (1 Tim. 3:1-13). While the different general councils of the Assemblies of God in Asia may have varying ways of dealing with details, it is generally understood by the Assemblies of God that marriage is a binding agreement that is not to be severed by any action other than death. These various general councils have the privilege and right to determine their position in such matters.
The seminary encourages the student to consider bringing his/her spouse when beginning his/her educational program in order that the married life should not be interrupted. However, we also recognize that, in the course of marriage relationships, stress causes difficulties to arise. The faculty and administration stand available to the student for assistance and counseling in support of the continuance of the marriage relationship. If, and when difficulties arise, then the student should, at the earliest point, consult with the Dean of Students so that guidance might be given.
When difficulties arise to the point that divorce or separation is the chosen option, the following steps are to be followed:
- The President must be informed in writing of the impending action.
- The President will determine what action is to be taken in consultation with the administration and faculty, and will also inform the appropriate national body or sponsor. In addition, failure to report within (30) thirty days any legal action leading to divorce or separation shall be grounds for dismissal. If divorce has already taken place and should remarriage be a pending option, the student must inform the President so that he may take any appropriate action. The school reserves the right to take any necessary action in these matters.
- An account will be set-up for all current students.
- Although married couples who are both students may elect to have separate accounts, all outstanding balances are considered the joint responsibility of both students.
- Upon enrollment, a student is required to post a deposit as noted below which will be retained until 60 days after the student graduates or withdraws from the seminary to cover any expenses that may not have been posted by the time of his/her departure from campus (such as immigration, utilities and phone bills). Any balance will be returned to the student at the end of the 60-day period along with a final statement showing an accounting of any amounts deducted.
- All tuition and other fees, meal charges, housing rental, electricity bills, immigration charges, etc. will be charged directly to the student's account.
- Any scholarship or student financial assistance, where applicable, will be credited to the student's account.
- Unless prior arrangement has been made and approval obtained from the Business Administrator, all accounts must not be overdrawn and must show a credit balance.
- Statement of accounts will be issued by the 10th of each month. Valid expenses will be automatically charged to the individual’s account without prior notice.
- Charges for rental and housing units are included in your fee assessment per trimester, which means a three-months rental fee is billed at the beginning of each trimester.
- The office encourages individuals to do a thorough review of his/her account and report immediately any discrepancy to the accounting supervisor for adjustment.
- Payment of bills is expected to be made upon receipt of the bill on the 25th of each month an interest charge equivalent to 3% per month will be applied to the unpaid balance of accounts.
- Students with overdrawn balances may NOT be allowed to take the final examination at the end of the trimester.
- Students with overdrawn balances are NOT allowed to graduate, unless prior written arrangements are made with the Business Administrator, on final settlement of the outstanding balance. Grades for a trimester are not posted to the student transcript until all account balances have been settled. Transcripts will not be mailed or provided until all account balances have been settled.
- Visitors and guests of students are NOT allowed to be entertained in the Dorm rooms. Students can entertain their visitors in the lobby.
- Guests of students must register at the Business Office and obtain permission from the Dean of Students or the Housing Coordinator if they are going to stay overnight.
- The cost of an overnight guest will be the responsibility of the student. If charges are not paid by the time the visitor leaves, it will be added to the students’ account. The student will be charged the normal housing guest rate for the overnight guest including those staying in the student’s apartment. Failure to register a guest on or before his/her arrival will result in an additional charge of $1.00/night/guest charged to the student’s account.
The intent of disciplinary action is “redemptive” and not “punitive” in nature. It is an avenue for learning, growth, ministerial and/or professional development. Disciplinary measure may include:
- Restrictions from leaving the campus.
- Withdrawal of APTS financial scholarship.
- Disqualification from APTS summer ministry.
- Suspension from APTS program of study.
- Suspension from graduation
Living in a dorm with people of various cultures is, in itself a learning experience. The dorm is also a training ground where theological understanding of Christian ethics will be tested. Therefore, each student should take advantage of this learning opportunity. Students will learn submission, humility, and love as it is expressed in Christ.
- The dormitories are intended for single students, that is, students who are studying here alone (whether married or unmarried).
- Normally, not less than four, but not more than six students may occupy a room.
- If less than four students desire to have one dormitory room, subject to availability of housing, special permission must be obtained from the Business Administrator and an adjusted cost will be made.
- All dormitory students take their meals in the APTS cafeteria, thus, cooking is prohibited in the dorm and refrigerators and gas stoves are not allowed.
- During the term breaks and summer, students who are not continuing their stay are not allowed to store their belongings in the dormitories. They may pack their belongings and place them in storage at the Bethesda building. However, APTS will not be held responsible for the loss of such personal belongings.
- During term break and summer, dorm occupants may be consolidated into different rooms in order to maintain four students per room. Students wishing to leave their belongings while away from campus may be asked to move their things to another room.
- During the term breaks, students have three options:
- Stay in the dorm and pay the daily rate.
- Rent a storage cubicle for their belongings with a monthly charge of $25.00.
- Place their belongings in storage area at no charge. APTS will not be held responsible for the loss of such personal effects.
- Students are responsible to give notice of the days during term breaks when they are not staying in the room or they will be charged the daily rate.
- Due to the heavy summer schedule of special classes, workshops and special groups, the above policy (f.1) and (f.2) will not apply to this period. The existing dorm rate per day will be charged and students must store their belongings in the storage to avoid this expense.
- Students may not simply leave their belongings with other students as a way of avoiding the cost of leaving things in the room. Any personal items remaining in the room will be subject to storage fees.
- The day following graduation will be considered as the last day of the school year. Students must vacate their rooms by noon to avoid further charges. The Business Office will establish the cost of staying beyond this.
- When available, a single student can apply for an apartment. Both the Dean of Students and Business Administrator must grant approval.
In addition to the above "Guidelines”, single students who are living in Bethesda Hall are expected to abide by the following rules:
- All lights in the dorm rooms must be turned off at 11:00 p.m. Those who want to study after this time must use table lamps.
- All guests must be entertained at the lobby of GMC building and not in the dorm rooms.
- APTS provides every dorm students with bedding for the first week of their stay. After that, the student is supposed to purchase his own. Those who wish to continue using APTS linens may do so for a small monthly rental fee. Sheets and pillowcases must be washed each week. Bedding items must be turned in clean before leaving the dorm at the conclusion of the regular school year or at the conclusion of the summer season.
- The ironing of clothes can only be done in the designated areas and only SINGLE dormitory students are allowed to use the iron and ironing board.
- If any repairs are needed in the dorm, please submit a "Work Request Form” (see page 32) to the Business office.
- The use of small electrical appliances (radio, shaver, hair dryer, and personal computer) is allowed in the dormitory rooms. Using anything like a cooking appliance (refrigerator, percolator, microwave oven) or ironing of clothes in the room is not allowed.
- Dorm students are expected to show courtesy and concern for their dorm mates. This includes respecting “lights out” and being quiet when others are sleeping.
- No wet clothes are to be dried inside the bathrooms, dorm rooms, or study rooms or on fences, trees or plants. Lines are provided for this purpose.
- A deposit of US$5.00 or (student current rate per trimester) is required for a room key and will be refunded upon return of key with original receipt.
- Study rooms are available on both the ladies; and men’s floor of Bethesda dormitory. Students using the rooms are responsible for maintaining order and cleanliness in these facilities. Men are not permitted in the ladies’ study room or ladies in the men’s study room.
- Non-compliance with the APTS housing/dormitory rules may result in the loss of APTS housing privileges.
1. Apartments - studio, one-bedroom, two-bedrooms, and three bedrooms are available at Bethesda, Sampaguita and Esperanza
- Apartments are intended primarily for married couples and families.
- Priority is given based on family size. APTS reserves the right to request students to move to accommodate those needing larger facilities.
- When available, a single student may apply for an apartment. However, this is subject to the approval of the Business Administrator and the Dean of Students. In addition, such a student account must not be overdrawn. Single students receiving financial aid from APTS may not live in an apartment
- Those using apartments are provided with basic furnishings such as gas stove and refrigerator with the understanding that the student and his family intend these for personal use. With the exception of having guests on occasion for meals, it is understood that the facilities are not to be used for provision of meals at a fee to other students since regular meals can be ordered/arranged at the APTS cafeteria.
2. Rental Agreement and Deposits
- Refunds (in US dollars) for deposits are made only upon full settlement of accounts.
3. Any request for changing apartments must be approved by the Business Administrator and the Dean of Students.
- Any request may or may not be granted subject to the availability of apartments and will be made at the discretion of the Dean of Students and the Business Administrator.
- The applicant must fill out a Request for Change in Housing form available at the Dean of Students’ office or Housing office.
- There will be no approval to move to a larger apartment unless the size of family necessitates the need a larger apartment. Requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis.
- No consideration will be given for a larger family to occupy a smaller apartment.
4. A single student is allowed to occupy an apartment by special permission, it is understood that should the apartment be needed for a family, the single student may be reassigned to the dormitory or a smaller apartment depending on the availability of space.
5. Domestic Help
- Those in apartments with domestic helpers (whether day-care, part-time or stay-in) must register the names of the helpers with the Dean of Students’ office. Failure to do so will result in a charge of $0.50 for each day the helper was not registered.
- A stay-in family helper will be considered as a part of the family unit.
- Domestic helpers must comply with APTS health regulations, including an annualchest X-ray.
6. The maximum number of individuals occupying the family housing units will be as follows:
Apartment Adults Children Children
above 3 under 3
Studio 2 0 0
1 bedroom 2 0 1
2 bedroom 3 1 1
3 bedroom 3 3 1
- Non-compliance with the APTS housing/apartment rules may result in loss of APTS housing privilege.
1. Children age 7 and under must have adult supervision at all times when outsidetheir home. This means a responsible adult must be with your children at all times. If this is a helper, then the helper must be instructed to do more than just watch the children. She must keep them from actions that would be harmful to them or to the campus environment.
2. Any damage caused by your child to campus facilities will be charged to you according to the following policy approved by the Administrative Committee. When children damage school property, such as destroying plants, the parents will be responsible to pay actual damages, plus a fine of P500.00 for a second occurrence, and P1,000.00 for a third or subsequent occurrence
3. Climbing trees, fences, walls, and steep hills is strictly prohibited.
4. Parents are to advise their children not to make noise in the hall ways. If complaints are made, the family may be reassigned to another unit.
5. Though APTS will maintain play equipment, children play on equipment at their own risk.
6. Children are not allowed to roam freely or play in campus buildings, such as GMC, ARC, and Hurst Bldg. The playground has been provided for your children where children can play under supervision. The staff has been instructed to report any children who are found violating this policy.
7.Parents still have the ultimate responsibility for any child’s behavior whether a helper is watching the child or not. The helper is responsible to know the APTS rules of conduct for children.